Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30458
Measuring E-Learning Effectiveness Using a Three-Way Comparison
Authors: Matthew Montebello
Abstract:The way e-learning effectiveness has been notoriously measured within an academic setting is by comparing the e-learning medium to the traditional face-to-face teaching methodology. In this paper, a simple yet innovative comparison methodology is introduced, whereby the effectiveness of next generation e-learning systems are assessed in contrast not only to the face-to-face mode, but also to the classical e-learning modality. Ethical and logistical issues are also discussed, as this three-way approach to compare teaching methodologies was applied and documented in a real empirical study within a higher education institution.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130135Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 776
 B. Bloom, "The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring," Educational Researcher, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 4-16, 1984.
 L. A. Halawia, R. V. McCarthy, and S. Piresc, "An Evaluation of E-Learning on the Basis of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Education for Business, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 374-380, 2009.
 D. Vidakovic, J. Bevis, and M. Alexander, "Bloom's taxonomy in developing assessment items," Journal of Online Mathematics and Its Applications, Mar. 2003.
 C. Kartha, "Learning business statistics: Online vs traditional," The Business Review, Cambridge, vol. 5, no. 1, 2006.
 A. A. Skylar, K. Higgins, R. Boone, and P. Jones, "Distance education: An exploration of alternative methods and types of instructional media in teacher education," Journal of Special Education Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 25-34, 2005.
 P. Suanpang and P. Petocz, "E-learning in Thailand: An analysis and case study," International Journal on E-Learning, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 415-439, 2006.
 G. Piccoli, R. Ahmad, and B. Ives, "Web-based virtual learning environments: A research framework and a preliminary asssessment of effectiveness in basic IT skills training," MIS Quarterly, vol. 25, pp. 401-427, 2001.
 AP, "Research on the Effectiveness of Online Learning - A Compilation of Research on Online Learning," Texas, USA, 2011.
 B. Means, Y. Toyama, R. Murphy, M. Bakia, and K. Jones, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies," Center for Technology in Learning, Washington, 2010.
 Chan, A., Chow, K., & Jia, W. (2003). A Framework for Evaluation of Learning Effectiveness in Online Courses. In W. e. Zhou, IXWL2003, LNCS 2783 (pp. 383-395). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
 R.M. Bernard et al., "How does distance education compare to classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature," Review of Educational Research, pp. 379–439, 2004.
 D. Xu and S. Smith Jaggars, "Online and Hybrid Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges," Online Education and Instructional Technology, 2011.
 H. Johnson and M. Cuellar Mejia, "Online Learning and Student Outcomes in California’s Community Colleges," California, USA, 2014.
 C., Neuhauser, "Learning Style and Effectiveness of Online and Face-to-Face Instruction," American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 99-113, 2002.
 M. Montebello, "Enhancing e-learning through the merging of e-portfolios, social networks and artificial intelligence," in 10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, 2016.
 D. Xu, W.W. Huang, H. Wang, and J. Heales, "Enhancing e-learning effectiveness using an intelligent agent-supported personalised virtual learning environment: An empirical study," Information & Management, pp. 430-440, 2014.
 E. Aeiad and F. Meziane, "An adaptable and personalised e-learning system based on free web resources," in NLDB 2015, LNCS 9103. Switzerland: Springer International, 2015, pp. 293-299.
 Ined. (2016, January) iClass Learning Management System. (Online). http://iclass.ined.uitm.edu.my/ (Accessed 1 Oct. 2016).
 OUP. (2016, February) Oxford Universtiy Press. (Online). https://www.oupchina.com.hk/elt/events/20160305-iclass-seminar/iclass_brochure_elt_feb-2016.pdf (Accessed 1 Oct. 2016).
 F. D. Davis, "User acceptance of information technology: system characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts," International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 475-487, 1993.
 Q. Ma and L. Liu, "The technology acceptance model: A meta-analysis of empirical findings," Journal of Organisational User Computations, pp. 59-72, 2004.
 D. Kim and H. Chang, "Key functional characteristics in designing and operating health information websites for user satisfaction: An application of the extended technology acceptance model," International Journal Med. Inform., pp. 790-800, 2007.
 A. K. Yarbrough and T. B. Smith, "Technology acceptance among physicians: A new take on TAM," Med. Care Res. Rev., pp. 650-672, 2007.
 M. Masrom, "Technology Acceptance Model and E-learning, "in 12th International Conference on Education, Brunei, 2007.
 M. G. Meany-Daboul, E. M. Roscoe, J. C. Bourret, and W. H. Ahearn, "A comparison of momentary time sampling and partial-interval recording for evaluating functional relations," Journal of Applied Behavioural Analysis, pp. 501-514, 2007.
 E. H. Joy and F. E. Garcia, "Measuring Learning Effectiveness: A new look at no-significance-difference findings," Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 33-39, 2000.
 M. R. Domenic, "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Online Learning as Opposed to Traditional Classroom Delivered Instruction," 2005.
 S. Wilkinson, "Focus Group Methodlogy," in Focus Group Research. Los Angeles: Sage, 2012, pp. 115-131.
 L. Cohen, L. Manion, and K. Morrison, Research Methods in Education (6th edition). USA: Routledge, 2007.
 A. Al-Adwan, A. Al-Adwan, and J. Smedley, "Exploring students acceptance of e-learning using TAM in Jordanian universities," International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 4-18, 2013.
 P Baxter and S. Jack, "Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers," The Qualitative Report, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 544-559, 2008.
 P. Burnard, P. Gill, K. Stewart, E. Treasure, and B. Chadwick, "Analysing and presenting qualitative data," British Dental Journal, vol. 204, pp. 429-432, 2008.
 V. Braun and V. Clarke, "Using thematic analysis in psychology," Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3, pp. 77-101, 2006.
 J. Thomas and A. Harden, "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews," Social Science Research Unit, ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, London, 2007.