Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Biofilm Formation in Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria Species Isolated from Dairy Products
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and some yeast species are common microorganisms found in dairy products and most of them are responsible for the fermentation of foods. Such cultures are isolated and used as a starter culture in the food industry because of providing standardisation of the final product during the food processing. Choice of starter culture is the most important step for the production of fermented food. Isolated LAB and yeast cultures which have the ability to create a biofilm layer can be preferred as a starter in the food industry. The biofilm formation could be beneficial to extend the period of usage time of microorganisms as a starter. On the other hand, it is an undesirable property in pathogens, since biofilm structure allows a microorganism become more resistant to stress conditions such as antibiotic presence. It is thought that the resistance mechanism could be turned into an advantage by promoting the effective microorganisms which are used in the food industry as starter culture and also which have potential to stimulate the gastrointestinal system. Development of the biofilm layer is observed in some LAB and yeast strains. The resistance could make LAB and yeast strains dominant microflora in the human gastrointestinal system; thus, competition against pathogen microorganisms can be provided more easily. Based on this circumstance, in the study, 10 LAB and 10 yeast strains were isolated from various dairy products, such as cheese, yoghurt, kefir, and cream. Samples were obtained from farmer markets and bazaars in Bursa, Turkey. As a part of this research, all isolated strains were identified and their ability of biofilm formation was detected with two different methods and compared with each other. The first goal of this research was to determine whether isolates have the potential for biofilm production, and the second was to compare the validity of two different methods, which are known as “Tube method” and “96-well plate-based method”. This study may offer an insight into developing a point of view about biofilm formation and its beneficial properties in LAB and yeast cultures used as a starter in the food industry.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130041Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 807
 H. Van Acker, P. Van Dijck, T Coenye, "Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial tolerance and resistance in bacterial and fungal biofilms", Trends In Microbiology, vol. 22(6), pp. 326-333, 2014.
 E. Akan, Ö. Kınık, “Biyofilm oluşum mekanizması ve biyofilmlerin gıda güvenliğine etkisi”, Journal of Food and Feed Science – Technology, vol. 14, pp. 42-51, 2014.
 T. Kawarai, S. Furukawa, H. Ogihara, M. Yamasaki, “Mixed-Species Biofilm Formation by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Rice Wine Yeasts”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73(14), pp. 4673-4676, 2007.
 A. Hassan, J. Usman, F. Kaleem, M. Omair, A. Khalid, M. Iqbal, “Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in the clinical isolates”, Braz J Infect. Dis., vol. 15(4), pp. 305-311, 2011.
 E. Ivanova, N. Atanasova-Pancevska, D. Kungulovski, “Antimicrobial Activities of Laboratory Produced Essential Oil Solutions Against Five Selected Fungal Strains”, Jour. Nat. Sci, Matica Srpska Novi Sad., vol. 124, 171-183, 2013.
 D. B. Makanjuola, D. G. Springham, “Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Stages of Malt Whisky Distillery Fermentations”, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 90, pp. 13-19, 1984.
 C. Garofalo, G. Silvestri, L. Aquilanti, F. Clementi, “PCR-DGGE analysis of lactic acid bacteria and yeast dynamics during the production processes of three varieties of Panettone”, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 105, pp. 243-254, 2008.
 H. Zhang, L. Xie, W. Zhang, W. Zhou, J. Su, J. Liu, “The association of biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria from fermented foods”, Journal of Food Safety, vol. 33, pp. 114-120, 2013.
 V. O. Adetunji, T. O. Isola, “Crystal Violet Binding Assay for Assessment of Biofilm Formation by Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp on Wood, Steel and Glass Surfaces”, Global Veterinaria, vol. 6 (1), pp. 06-10, 2011.
 M. Kolari, “Attachment mechanisms and properties of bacterial biofilms on non-living surfaces”, Academic Dissertation in Microbiology, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology University of Helsinki Finland, pp. 58, 2003.
 M. Yesilcimen Akbas, S. Cag, “Use of organic acids for prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms on food contact surfaces”, Food Science and Technology International, vol. 22(7), pp. 587–597, 2016.
 G. M. Walker, G. G. Stewart, “Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages”, Beverages, vol. 2(30), pp. 1-12, 2016.
 N. M., Chauan, R. B. Shinde, S. M. Karuppayil, “Effect of alcohols on filamentation, growth, viability and biofilm development in Candida albicans”, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 44(4), pp. 1315-1320, 2013.
 L. Rinaudi, N. A. Fujishige, A. M. Hirsch, E. Banchio, “Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilm formation”, Research in Microbiology, vol. 157, pp. 867–875, 2006.
 M. J. Salas-Jara, E. A. Sanhueza, A. Retamal-Díaz, C. González, H. Urrutia, A. Garcia, “Probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C biofilm formation on AGS and Caco-2 cells and Helicobacter pylori inhibition”, Biofouling- The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research, vol. 32, pp. 1245-1257, 2016.