Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions
Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129612Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 633
 Langlois J. A, Rutland –Brown W, Thomas K.E. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. CDCP, NCIPC. Atlanta, GA 2004.
 Greenes D. S. and Schutzman S. A. Clinical indicators of intracranial injury in head-injured infants Pediatrics, 1999: 104, 861-7
 Roth S, Raul J-S, Ludes B, Willinger R. Finite element analysis of impact and shaking inflicted to a child. International journal of legal medicine. 2007: 121(3):223-228.
 Roth S, Raul J, Willinger R. Biofidelic child head FE model to simulate real world trauma. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2008: 90(3):262-274.
 Roth S, Vappou J, Raul J, Willinger R. Child head injury criteria investigation through numerical simulation of real world trauma. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2009: 93(1):32-45.
 Coats B, Margulies S. Parametric study of head impact in the infant. Stapp Car Crash J. 2007: 51:1-15
 Roth S, Raul J, Ruan J, Willinger R. Limitation of scaling methods in child head finite element modelling. International Journal of Vehicle Safety. 2007: 2(4):404-421.
 Roth S, Raul JS, Willinger R. Finite element modelling of paediatric head impact: Global validation against experimental data. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2010: 99(1):25-33.
 Li Z, Hu J, Reed MP, Rupp JD, Hoff CN, Zhang J, Cheng B. Development, validation, and application of a parametric pediatric head finite element model for impact simulations. Annals of biomedical engineering.2011; 39(12):2984-2997.
 Klinich K, Hulbert G, Schneider L. Estimating infant head injury criteria and impact response using crash reconstruction and finite element modelling. Stapp car crash journal. 2002;46:165
 A.M. Nahum, R. Smith, C.C. Ward, Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact, Proceedings of the 21st STAPP Car Crash Conference 1977: 339–366.
 W.N. Hardy, C. Foster, M. Mason, K. Yang, A. King, S. Tashman, Investigation of head injury mechanisms using neutral density technology and high-speed biplanar X-ray, Stapp Car Crash J. 45 2001: 337–368.
 N. Yoganandan, F.A. Pintar, A. Sances, P.R. Walsh, C.L. Ewing, T. Snyder, R.G. Snyder, Biomechanics of skull fracture, in: Proceedings of the Head Injury Symposium, Washington, DC, 1994:. 227–236.
 Ghaidaa A Khalid, Michael D Jones et al. Preliminary Numerical Simulations to Investigate the Kinematics of Infant Head Impact. Proceedings of the 24th UK Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering. March 2016: Cardiff University, Cardiff.
 Coats, B. & Margulies, S.S. Material properties of human infant skull and suture at high rates. Journal of Neurotrauma, 2006: 23(8), 1222–1232.
 Li, Z., Luo, X. & Zhang, J. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 2013: 112(3), 309–319.
 G.K. Mc Pherson, T.J. Kriewall, The elastic modulus of fetal cranial bone: a first step toward an understanding of the biomechanics of fetal head molding, J. Biomech. 13 (1981) 9–16.
 Cheng, J., Howard, I.C. Rennison, M. Study of an infant brain subjected to periodic motion via a custom experimental apparatus design and finite element modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 2010: 43(15), 2887–2896.
 Prange M, Luck J, Dibb A, Van Ee C, Nightingale R, Myers B. Mechanical properties and anthropometry of the human infant head. Stapp car crash journal. 2004: 48:279.
 Tarantino CA, Dowd MD, Murdock TC. Short vertical falls in infants. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1999:15(1):5-8.