Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30477
X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th of September 2012

Authors: Mirabbos Mirkamalov, Zavkiddin Mirtoshev


The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.

Keywords: magnetic reconnection, X-ray emission, solar atmosphere, solar flare

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 540


[1] R. L. Kenneth, “The Sun from Space,” 2nd ed., Berlin: Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 89–91.
[2] R. L. Kenneth, “The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Sun,” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 122–133.
[3] B. Joshi, A. M. Veronig, J. Lee, S. Bong, S. K. Tiwari, and K.-S. Cho, “Pre-flare activity and magnetic reconnection during the evolutionary stages of energy release in a solar eruptive flare,” ApJ., vol. 743, no. 2, p. 195, Dec. 2011.
[4] H. Hudson, L. Fletcher, J. I. Khan, and T. Kosugi, “Overview of solar flares. The Yohkoh perspective,” Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics, vol. 314, D. E. Gary and C. Keller, Ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2004, ch. 8, pp. 153–178.
[5] A. O. Benz, “Flare observations,” Living Rev. Sol. Phys., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 17–19, Feb. 2008.
[6] C. J. Schrijver, “Driving major solar flares and eruptions: A review,” Adv. Space Res., vol. 43, iss. 5, pp. 739–755, March 2009.
[7] S. K. Antiochos, C. R. DeVore, and J. A.Klimchuk, “A model for solar coronal mass ejections,” ApJ., vol. 510, iss. 1, pp. 485 – 493, Jan. 1999.
[8] B. Joshi, U. Kushwaha, K.-S. Cho, A. M. Veronig, “RHESSI AND TRACE observations of multiple flare activity in AR 10656 and associated filament eruption,” ApJ, vol. 771, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jun. 2013.
[9] A. C. Sterling, R. L. Moore, J. Qiu, and H. Wang, “Hα Proxies for EIT Crinkles: Further Evidence for Preflare ''Breakout''-Type Activity in an Ejective Solar Eruption,” ApJ., vol. 561, iss. 2, pp. 1116–1126, Nov. 2001.
[10] A. C. Sterling and R. L. Moore, “Internal and external reconnection in a series of homologous solar flares,” J.Geophys. Res., vol. 106, iss. A11, pp. 25227– 5238, Nov. 2001.
[11] F. Farnık, H. Hudson, and T. Watanabe, “Spatial relations between rreflares and flares,” Sol. Phys., vol. 165, iss. 1, pp. 169–179, Apr. 1996.
[12] F. Farnık, and S. K. Savy, “Soft X-Ray pre-flare emission studied in Yohkoh-SXT images,” Sol. Phys., vol. 183, iss. 2, pp. 339–357, Dec. 1998.
[13] S. Kim, Y. -J. Moon, Y. -H. Kim, Y. -D. Park, K. -S. Kim, G. S. Choe, K. -H. Kim, “Preflare eruption triggered by a tether-cutting process,” ApJ, vol. 683, iss. 1, pp. 510–515, Aug. 2008.
[14] M. M. Mirkamalov, “Multi-wavelength investigations of solar eruptive phenomena,” PG pilot project, Ahmedabad: PRL, Apr. 2013.
[15] H. E. Eshkuvatov, M. M. Mirkamalov, “Influence of M 1.6 class solar flare to TEC variations in the Earth’s ionosphere on 6th September 2012,” in Act. problems of theor. and nuc. phys. Conf., Tashkent, 2013, pp. 66–68.
[16] Z. D. Mirtoshev, “Variability of the X-ray Sun during descending period of Solar Cycle 23,” PG pilot project, Ahmedabad: PRL, Apr. 2015.
[17] D. W. Fanning, “IDL programming techniques,” 2nd ed., USA: Fanning Software Consulting, 2003.
[18] G. J. Hurford, E. J. Schmahl, R. A. Schwartz, et al., “The RHESSI imaging concept,” Sol. Phys., vol. 210, iss. 1, pp. 61–86, Nov. 2002.
[19] M. M. Mirkamalov, Z. D. Mirtoshev, “The M 1.6 class flare X-ray observations on 6th September 2012,” in Young Scientists Conf., Tashkent, 2015, pp. 9–12.
[20] J. C. Brown, “The deduction of energy spectra of non-thermal electrons in flares from the observed dynamic spectra of hard X-ray bursts,” Sol. Phys., vol. 18, iss. 3, pp. 489–502, Jul. 1971.
[21] E. P. Kontar, I. G. Hannah, N. L. S. Jeffrey, and M. Battaglia, “The sub-arcsecond hard X-ray structure of loop footpoints in a solar flare,” ApJ, vol. 717, iss. 1, pp. 250–256, Jul. 2010.
[22] W. Uddin, B. Joshi, R. Chandra, and A. Joshi, “Dynamics of limb flare and associated primary and secondary post flare loops,” Bull. Astron. Soc. India, vol. 31, pp. 303–308, March 2003.
[23] P. C. Grigis, and A. O. Benz, “The spectral evolution of impulsive solar X-ray flares,” A&A, vol. 426, pp. 1093–1101, Nov. 2004.
[24] S. Krucker, I. G. Hannah, and R. P. Lin, “RHESSI and Hinode X-ray observations of a partially occulted solar flare,” ApJ, vol. 671, iss. 2, pp. L193–L196, Dec. 2007.
[25] S. Krucker, M. Battaglia, P. J. Cargill, et al., “Hard X-ray emission from the solar corona,” A&AR, vol. 16, pp. 155–208, Oct. 2008.
[26] S. Krucker, H. S. Hudson, L. Glesener, S. M. White, S. Masuda, J.-P. Wuelser, R. P. Lin, “Measurements of the coronal acceleration region of a solar flare,” ApJ, vol. 714, iss. 2, pp. 1108–1119, May 2010.
[27] R. P. Lin, S. Krucker, G. J. Hurford, et al., “RHESSI observations of particle acceleration and energy release in an intense solar gamma-ray line flare,” ApJ, vol. 595, iss. 2, pp. L69–L76, Oct. 2003.
[28] A. M. Veronig, and J. C. Brown, “A coronal thick-target interpretation of two hard X-ray loop events,” ApJ, vol. 603, iss. 2, pp. L117–L120, March 2004.
[29] A. M. Veronig, J. C. Brown, and L. Bone, “Evidence for a solar coronal thick-target hard X-ray source observed by RHESSI,” Adv. Space Res., vol. 35, iss. 10, pp. 1683–1689, Jan. 2005.