Risk Assessment of Lead in Meat from Different Environments of Egypt
Lead is among the heavy metals and it is one of the highly toxic metals, recognized in most countries. This metal accumulates in animal organs as liver and kidney. The present investigation provides the concentrations of lead in cow's meat and different animal organs collected from three Egyptian environments. The results revealed that lead levels in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and heart in industrial areas were higher than those detected in the same organs of other two areas (heavy traffic and rural), which recorded mean values of 3.0091, 1.7070, 1.8609, 0.6401 and 0.5332 mg/kg, respectively, followed by traffic areas, 2.9166, 1.4443, 1.6967, 0.4042 and 0.4103 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values of rural areas were 1.8895, 0.9550, 0.9117, 0.3215 and 0.2856 mg/kg, in the same order. It could be recommended that monitoring and evaluation of lead levels in meat at regular intervals are very important.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127492Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 525
 A.D. Lambert, J. P. Smith, and K.L. Dodds, "Shelf life extension and microbiological safety of fresh meat - A review," Food Microbiology, vol. 8, pp. 267-297, 1991.
 R.A. Lawrie and D.A. Ledward, "Lawrie’s meat science," Wood head Publishing Ltd, Cambridge: England and CRC Press Boca Raton, New York, Washington DC. 7th ed., pp. 75 -155, 2006.
 H.K. Biesalski, and D. Nohr, "The nutritional quality of meat." In: J.P. Kerry and D. Ledward (eds). Improving the sensory and nutritional quality of fresh meat 1st edn. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, England, 2009.
 J.M. Llobet, G. Falco, C. Casas, A. Teixido, and J.L. Domingo, "Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in common foods and estimated daily intake by children, adolescents, adult and seniors of Catalonia, Spain," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 51, pp. 838-842, 2003.
 P.R.M. Correia, E. Oliveira, and P.V. Oliveira, "Simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb in foodstuffs by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry," Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 405,pp. 205-211, 2000.
 C.H. Pitot, and P.Y. Dragan, "Chemical carcinogenesis. In: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology," 5th Edn. International Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York, pp. 201-260, 1996.
 W. ED. Mertz, "Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition." Vol. 1 and II, 5th ed. Academic Press, New York, 1986.
 R.A. Goyer, "Results of lead research: prenatal exposure and neurological consequences," Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 104, pp. 1050-1054,1996.
 M.A. Abou-Donia, "Lead concentrations in different animal's muscles and consumable organs at specific localities in Cairo," Global Veterinaria, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 280-284, 2008.
 A.A.K. Abou-Arab, and M.A. Abou Donia, "Lead content in Egyptian foods and the role of washing and peeling on its levels," J. Egypt. Soc. Toxicol., vol. 26, pp. 13-21, 2002.
 A.A.K. Abou-Arab, "Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.39, pp. 593-599, 2001.
 N. Zantopoulos, V. Antoniou, and E. Nikolaidis, "Copper, Zinc, cadmium and lead in sheep grazing in north Greece," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 62, pp. 691-699, 1999.
 E.R. Venalainen,A. Niemi and T. Hirvi " Heavy metals in tissues of horses in Finland, 1980-82 and 1992-93" Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,vol. 56, 251-258.
 AOAC, "Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis. Metals and other elements at trace levels in foods," Published by AOAC International Suite 400 2200 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, Virginia, 22201-3301 USA., 2000.
 R.D. Beaty and J.D. Kerber, "Concepts, instrumentation and Techniques in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery," Copyrighted by The Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA. 1993.
 G.W. Snedecor and W.G. Cochran, “Statistical Methods”, 7th Ed. Oxford and IBIT public. Co. New York., 1980.
 The Contaminants Group subordinated to the Nordic Council of Ministers, 1991.
 T.J. Spierenburg, G.J. De Graaf, and A.J. Braars, "Cadmium, zinc, lead and copper in livers and kidney of cattle in the neighborhood of zinc refineries," Environmental Monitoring Assessment, vol. 11, pp. 107-114, 1988.