Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30526
Long-Term Monitoring and Seasonal Analysis of PM10-Bound Benzo(a)pyrene in the Ambient Air of Northwestern Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős


Atmospheric aerosols have several important environmental impacts and health effects in point of air quality. Monitoring the PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could have important environmental significance and health protection aspects. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is the most relevant indicator of these PAH compounds. In Hungary, the Hungarian Air Quality Network provides air quality monitoring data for several air pollutants including BaP, but these data show only the annual mean concentrations and maximum values. Seasonal variation of BaP concentrations comparing the heating and non-heating periods could have important role and difference as well. For this reason, the main objective of this study was to assess the annual concentration and seasonal variation of BaP associated with PM10 in the ambient air of Northwestern Hungary seven different sampling sites (six urban and one rural) in the sampling period of 2008–2013. A total of 1475 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the different sampling sites and analyzed for BaP by gas chromatography method. The BaP concentrations ranged from undetected to 8 ng/m3 with the mean value range of 0.50-0.96 ng/m3 referring to all sampling sites. Relatively higher concentrations of BaP were detected in samples collected in each sampling site in the heating seasons compared with non-heating periods. The annual mean BaP concentrations were comparable with the published data of the other Hungarian sites.

Keywords: Air quality, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo(a)pyrene

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1005


[1] T. Kameda, "Atmospheric chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds," J. Health Sci., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 504-511, 2011.
[2] K. Ravindra, R. Sokhi, R. V. Grieken, "Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors and regulation," Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2895-2921, 2008.
[3] A. Szabó-Nagy, Zs. Csanádi, J. Szabó, "Preliminary assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to airborne PM10 in Győr, Hungary," Acta Tech. Jaur., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 9-22, 2015.
[4] K. Srogi, "Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review," Environ. Chem. Lett., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 169-195, 2007.
[5] World Health Organization (WHO), Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91. 2nd Edition. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Copenhagen, 2000.
[6] ATSDR, Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1995.
[7] A. M. Caricchia, S. Chiavarini, M. Pezza, "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmospheric particulate matter in the city of Naples (Italy)," Atmos. Environ., vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 3731-3738, 1999.
[8] C. E. Bostrom, P. Gerde, A. Hanberg, B. Jernstrom, C. Johansson, T. Kyrklund, A. Rannug, M. Tornqvist, K. Victorin, R. Westerholm, "Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air," Environ. Health Persp., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 451-488, 2002.
[9] K. H. Kim, S. A. Jahan, E. Kabir, R. J. C. Brown, "A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects," Environ. Int., vol. 60, pp. 71-80, 2013.
[10] J. Unwin, J. Cocker, E. Scobbie, H. Chambers, "An assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UK," Ann. Occup. Hyg., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 395-403, 2006.
[11] P. Boffetta, N. Jourenkova, P. Gustavsson, "Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," Cancer Causes Control, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 444-472, 1997.
[12] W. A. Garcia-Suastegui, A. Huerta-Chagoya, K. L. Carrasco-Col?n, M. Pratt, K. John, P. Petrosyan, "Seasonal variations in the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in young adults living in Mexico City," Mutagenesis, vol. 26, pp. 385-391, 2011.
[13] M. J. Gunter, R. L. Divi, M. Kulldorff, R. Vermeulen, K. J. Haverkos, M. Kuo. "Leukocyte polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct formation and colorectal adenoma," Carcinogenesis, vol. 28, pp. 1426-1429, 2007.
[14] B. G. Armstrong, E. Hutchinson, J. Unwin, T. Fletcher, "Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis," Environ. Health Persp. vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 970-978, 2004.
[15] T. Nielsen, H. A. Jorgensen, J. C. Larsen, M. Poulsen, "City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects," Sci. Total Environ., vol. 189, pp. 41-49, 1996.
[16] D. M. Wassenberg, R. T. Di Giulio, "Synergistic embryotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists with cytochrome P4501A inhibitors in Fundulus heteroclitus," Environ. Health Persp., vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 1658-64, 2004.
[17] OMSZ ÉLFO, Summary of the OLM PM10 sampling program in 2008-2013, Reference Centre for Air Quality Protection, Budapest, 2008-2013 (in Hungarian).
[18] EEA, Air quality in Europe -- 2013 report, European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2013.
[19] Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó-Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős, "Temporal variation of PM10-bound Beno(a)pyrene concentration in an urban and a rural site of Northwestern Hungary," Int. J. Environ. Chem. Ecol. Geol. Geophys. Eng., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 872-876, 2015.
[20] MSZ EN 12341:2000, Air quality. Determination of the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter. Reference method and field test procedure to demonstrate reference equivalence of measurement methods, Hungarian Standard Association, Budapest, 2000.
[21] MSZ EN 15549:2008, Air quality. Standard method for measurement of the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air, Hungarian Standard Association, Budapest, 2008.
[22] J. Szabó, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Erdős, "Ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in an urban site of Győr, Hungary," Air Qual. Atm. Health, vol. 8, no.2, pp. 229-241, 2015.