Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats
Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126317Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1401
 Food and Drug Administration (1993): Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton, FL: C.K. Smoley (c/o CRC Press, Inc.).
 H. Ashida, T. Hashimoto, S. Tsuji, K. Kanazawa, and G. Danno, (2000): Synergistic effects of food colors on the toxicity of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H pyrido-indole in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 46(3): 130–136.
 K.A. Amin, H. Abdel Hameid, A.H. Abd Elsttar, (2010): Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 48(10):2994-2999
 K. Walton, R. Walker, J.J. Sandt, and J.V. Castell, (1999): The application of in vitro data in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake of food additives.Food Chem. Toxicol. 37 (12), 1175–1197.
 H. Aboel-Zahab, Z. el-Khyat, G. Sidhom, R. Awadallah, W. Abdel-al, and K. Mahdy, (1997): Physiological effects of some synthetic food colouring additives on rats. Boll.Chim. Farm. 136, 615-627.
 R.R. Upadhyay, (1997): Mild hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes by tartrazine and sodium benzoate. Bionat. 17(1):43-44.
 N. Mehedi, O. Mokrane, S. Alami, C. Ainad-Tabet, Zaoui, O. Kheroua, and D. Saidi, (2013): A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazinein Swiss mice.African journal of biotechnology, (12); 4519-4529.
 I. Himri, S. Bellahcen, F. Souna, F. Belmekki, M. Aziz, M. Bnouham, J. Zoheir, Z. Berkia, H. Mekhfi, E. Saalaoui, (2011): A 90-day oral toxicity of tartrazine, A synthetic food dye, in wistar rats. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 3(3):159-169.
 J.E. Sherwin, (1984): Liver function. In: LA, PESCE AJ, eds. clinical chemistry, theory, analysis, and correction. St louis: Mosby: 420-438.
 A. Kaplan, J. Szalbo, (1983): Clinical chemistry: Interpretation and techniques, 2nd ed. A Kalpan, J Szabo, editors, p 157.
 M.D. Shephard, R.D. Mezzachi , (1983) : Clin Biochem Revs, 4:61-7.
 E. Beutler, O. Duron, M.B. Kelly, (1963) J. Lab Clin. Med., 61, 882.
 M. Nishikimi, N.A. Roa, and K. Yogi, (1972): Biochem. Bioph. Res. Common., 46, 849 - 854.
 K. Satoh, (1978): Clinica Chimica Acta, 90, 37.
 J. D. Bancroft, K. Suvarna, and C. Layton, (2012): Bancroft’s theory and practice of histological techniques. 7th ed. 2012 E book ISBN: 978-0-7020-5032-9.
 E.A. Abdel-Rahim, F.A Ahmed, G.E. El-Desoky, M.E. Rahmadan, (1987): Biochemical role of some natural and synthetic food colourants on liver function of rats. Minia. J. Agric .Res. Dev. 9 (3), 11-17.
 H.A. Mekkawy, M.O. Ali, A. M. El-Zawahry, (1998): Toxic effect of synthetic and natural food dyes on renal and hepatic functions in rats. Toxicol.Lett.95 (1), 155.
 H. Varely, A.H. Gowenlock, M. Bell, (1988): Practical Clinical Biochemistry, eighth ed. William Heinmann, Medical Book Ltd., London. 1:262.
 J.K. Malik, R.V. Singh, R.C Gupta, P.N. Varman, B. S. Pauls, (1980): Influence of fenitrothion on in vitro incorporation of acetate-14- in liver lipids and various tissue enzymes in rats. J. Nucl. Agric. Biol. 9, 25-28.
 G.E. Westlake, P.J. Bunyan, A.D. Martin, P.I., Stanley, and L.C. Steed, (1981): Orangophosphate poising effects of selected esterases of Japanese Quail. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29,272-778.
 S. Sharma, R.P Goyal, G. Chakravarty, A. Sharma, (2005): Haemotoxic effects of chocolate brown, a commonly used blend of permitted food colour on Swiss Albino mice. Asian J. Exp. Sci., 19 (2): 93-103, 34.
 I.L. Moutinho, L.C. Bertges, and R.V. Assis, (2007): Prolongeduse of the food dye tartrazine and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67(1): 141–145.
 A.K. Bansul, (2005): Modulation of N-nitrosadiethylamine induced oxidative stress by vitamin E in rat erythrocytes. Human Exp. Toxicol. 24-297-302.
 G.E. Helal, A.M. Zaahkouk, A.H. Mekkawy, (2000) : Effect of some food colorants (synthetic and natural products) of Young Alibino rats. Egypt. J. Hosp. Med. 200, 1:103-113.
 H.M. El Wahab, and G. S. Moram, (2012). Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats. Toxicology& Industrial Health, 1-9.
 MA Shousha, A.A. Sakr, M.A. Hammam, N.M. Abdel-Moein, (1992): Effect of synthetic banana food additives on energy and nucleic acids metabolism in brain, liver and kidney tissues of albino rats. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences 7(7): 45–55.
 Y. Suzuki, M. Ishihara, T. Segami, M. Ito, (1998): Anti‐ulcer effects of antioxidants, quercetin, alpha-tocopherol, nifedipine and tetracycline in rats. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 78 (4): 435-441.
 V. Rus, C. Gherman, V. Miclăuş, A. Mihalca, G. C. Nadăş, (2009): Comparative toxicity of food dyes on liver and kidneys in guinea pigs: A histopathological study. Annals of RSCB 15 (1): 161-165, 40.
 H. Varely, (1987): Practical Clinical Biochemistry, sixth ed. London Heinemann Medical Books. pp. 477–549, 45.