Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30455
Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Routing Algorithm in Case of Disaster Prediction
Abstract:Ubiquity of natural disasters during last few decades have risen serious questions towards the prediction of such events and human safety. Every disaster regardless its proportion has a precursor which is manifested as a disruption of some environmental parameter such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vibrations and etc. In order to anticipate and monitor those changes, in this paper we propose an overall system for disaster prediction and monitoring, based on wireless sensor network (WSN). Furthermore, we introduce a modified and simplified WSN routing protocol built on the top of the trickle routing algorithm. Routing algorithm was deployed using the bluetooth low energy protocol in order to achieve low power consumption. Performance of the WSN network was analyzed using a real life system implementation. Estimates of the WSN parameters such as battery life time, network size and packet delay are determined. Based on the performance of the WSN network, proposed system can be utilized for disaster monitoring and prediction due to its low power profile and mesh routing feature.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124690Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2194
 D. Chen, Z. Liu, L. Wang, M. Dou, J. Chen and H. Li, “Natural disaster monitoring with wireless sensor networks: A case study of data-intensive applications upon low-cost scalable systems,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 651–663, Aug. 2013.
 M. Lindell and C. Prater, “Assessing community impacts of natural disasters,” Natural Hazards Review, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 176–185, Nov. 2003.
 B. H. Calhoun, D. C. Daly, N. Verma and D. F. Finchelstein, D. D. Wentzloff, A. Wang, S. H. Cho and A. P. Chandrakasan, “Design considerations for ultra-low energy wireless microsensor nodes,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 727–749, Jun. 2005.
 G. J. Pottie and W. J. Kaiser, “Wireless integrated network sensors,” Magazine Communications of the ACM, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 51–58, May 2000.
 D. Waltenegus and C. Poellabauer, Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory & practice. Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2010.
 W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660–670, Oct. 2002.
 M. Othman and K. Shazali, “Wireless sensor network applications: A study in environment monitoring system,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41.
 C. Gomez, J. Oller and J. Paradells, “Overview and evaluation of bluetooth low energy: An emerging low-power wireless technology,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 11 734–11 753, Aug. 2012.
 A. Kadri, E. Yaacoub, M. Mushtaha and A. Abu-Dayya, “Wireless sensor network for real-time air pollution monitoring,” in 1st International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and their Applications (ICCSPA), Feb. 2013, pp. 1 – 5.
 N. Suljanovic, A. Gogic, A. Mujcic, I.H. Cavdra and M. Zajc, “The role of mac routing in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference, Trabzon, Turkey, Apr. 2014, pp. 2323–2326.
 C. Alippi, R. Camplani, C. Galperti and M. Roveri, “A robust, adaptive, solar-powered wsn framework for aquatic environmental monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 45–55, Jan. 2011.
 G. Barrenetxea, F. Ingelrest, G. Schaefer and M. Vetterli, “Wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring: The sensorscope experience,” in Proc. IEEE International Zurich Seminar on Communications, Zurich, Switzerland, Mar. 2008, pp. 98–101.
 G. Werner-Allen, J. Johnson, M. Ruiz, J. Lees and M. Welsh, “Monitoring volcanic eruptions with a wireless sensor network,” in Proc. 2nd European Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks, Istanbul, Turkey, Jan. 2005, pp. 108–120.
 S. Verma, N. Chug and D. V. Gadre, “Wireless sensor network for crop field monitoring,” in Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing (ITC), 2010 International Conference on, Kochi, Kerala, Mar. 2010, pp. 207–211.
 J. Valverde, V. Rosello, G. Mujica, J. Portilla, A. Uriarte, and T. Riesgo, “Wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring: Application in a coffee factory,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 2012.
 J. Hughes, J. Yan and K. Soga, “Development of wireless sensor network using bluetooth low energy (BLE) for construction noise monitoring,” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1379–1405, Jun. 2015.
 C. M. Nguyen, J. Mays, D. Plesa, S. Rao, M. Nguyen and J. C. Chiao, “Wireless sensor nodes for environmental monitoring in Internet of Things,” in Microwave Symposium (IMS), 2015 IEEE MTT-S International, Phoenix, AZ, May 2015, pp. 1–4.
 Z. Guo, I. G. Harris, L. Tsaur and Xianbo Chen, “An on-demand scatternet formation and multi-hop routing protocol for ble-based wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, New Orleans, LA, Mar. 2015, pp. 1590–1595.
 C. Schurgers and M. B. Srivastava, “Energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks,” in Military Communications Conference, Oct. 2001, pp. 357–361.
 CSR, “Csrmesh,” Tech. Rep., Mar. 2015.
 H. S. Kim, J. Lee and J.W. Jang, “Blemesh: A wireless mesh network protocol for bluetooth low energy devices,” in Proc. 3rd International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), Rome, Italy, Aug. 2015, pp. 558–563.
 Bluetooth Special Interest Group, “Bluetooth technology adding mesh networking to spur new wave of innovation,” Press Release, Tech. Rep., Feb. 2015.
 J. Chen, S. Li, and Y. Sun, “Novel deployment schemes for mobile sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 2907–2919, Nov. 2007.
 M. Matin and M. Islam, “Overivew of wireless sensor network,” in Wireless Sensor Networks - Technology and Protocols, D. M. Matin, Ed. InTech, 2012.
 J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal, “Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey,” IEEE Wireless Commun. Mag., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 6–28, Dec. 2004.
 Z. Abbas and W. Yoon, “A survey on energy conserving mechanisms for the internet of things: Wireless networking aspects,” Sensors 2015, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 24 818–24 847, Sep. 2015.
 SS. Chalasani and J.M. Conrad, “A survey of energy harvesting sources for embedded systems,” in Southeastcon, 2008. IEEE, Apr. 2008, pp. 442–447.
 Bluetooth Special Interest Group, “Bluetooth specification version 4.0,” Tech. Rep., Jun. 2010.
 G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari, and C. S. Raghavendra, “An adaptive energy-efficient and low-latency MAC for data gathering in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, Apr. 2004, pp. 224–231.
 V. Annamalai, S. K. S. Gupta, and L. Schwiebert, “On tree-based convergecasting in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Mar. 2003, pp. 1942–1947.
 P. Levis, T. Clausen, J. Hui, O. Gnawali and J. Ko, “The Trickle Algorithm,” Tech. Rep. RFC 6206, 2011.
 M. Stolikj, T.M.M. Meyfroyt, P.J.L. Cuijpers and J.J. Lukkien, “Improving the performance of trickle-based data dissemination in low-power networks,” CoRR, vol. abs/1509.08654, Oct. 2015.
[Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.08654
 P. Levis, N. Patel , D. Culler and S. Shenker, “Trickle: A self-regulating algorithm for code propagation and maintenance in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the First Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, , Mar. 2004, pp. 15–28.
 O. Gnawali, R. Fonseca, K. Jamieson, D. Moss and P. Levis, “ Collection Tree Protocol,” in Proc. of the 7th ACM conference on embedded networked sensor systems, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–14.
 J. Hui and R. Kelsey, “Multicast Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (MPL),” Tech. Rep., 2014.
 T. Winter, P. Thubert, A. Brandt, J. Hui, R. Kelsey, P. Levis, K. Pister, R. Struik, J. Vasseur and R. Alexander, “RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks,” Tech. Rep. RFC 6550, 2012.
 Nordic Semiconductor, “nRF51 Series Reference manual v3.1,” Tech. Rep., 2014.
 NXP Semiconductors, “PCF8563 manual,” Tech. Rep., 2015.
 Analog Devices, “ADXL362 manual,” Tech. Rep., 2015.
 Sensirion, “SHT21 manual,” Tech. Rep., 2011.
 A. Zollo, O. Amoroso, M. Lancieri, Y.M. Wu and H. Kanamori, “A threshold-based earthquake early warning using dense accelerometer networks,” Geophysical Journal International, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 963–974, Aug. 2010.
 Texas Instruments, “CC3100 SimpleLink Wi-Fi Network Processor, Internet-of-Things Solution for MCU Applications,” Tech. Rep., 2015.