Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing
The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1123550Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1621
 J. Tchango Tchango, A. Bikoï, R. Achard, J. V. Escalant and J. A. Ngalani, “Plantain: Post-harvest operations centre de recherches regionales sur bananiers et plantains, Cameroon (CRBP)” In Danilo Mejia (Technical), Beverly Lewis AGSI/FAO, 1999. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Plantain.pdf . Accessed on June 23, 2015.
 L. Opara, “Cassava storage, yam storage and storage of edible aroids” In CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering Volume IV Agro-Processing Engineering. Edited by CIGR–The International Commission of Agricultural Engineering. Published by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, USA, 1999, pp157-210
 B. Cuq, E. Rondet, and J. Abecassis, Food powders engineering, between knowhow and science: Constraints, stakes and opportunities. Powder Tech., 2011, 208: 244-251
 FAO, http//www.fao.org/inpho/content/text/ch25_01.htm. 2006. Accessed 09/06/2012.
 P. Kormawa and M. O. Akoroda, “Cassava supply chain: Arrangement for industrial utilization in Nigeria.” IITA Documentary, Ibadan, 2003, pp.28.
 N. H. Akissoe, J. D. Hounhouigan, N. Brica, P. Vernier, M. C. Nago, and O. A. Olorunda, “Physical, chemical and sensory evaluation of dried yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers flour and amala – A flour-derived product.” Trop. Sci., 2003, 41: 151-153.
 P. I. Akubor, F. O. Adamolekun, C. O Oba, H. Obari, and I. O. Abudu, “Chemical composition and functional properties of cowpea and plantain flour blends for cookie production.” J. Sci. Food Agric. 2003, 58(3): 1-9.
 A. A. Obomeghei, M. O. Obafemi and S. Oyibo, “Processing parameters for cocoyam flour production”. In: In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual conference of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 1998, pp. 12-16.
 J. F. John and A. Lilia, “Food powder handling and processing: Industry problems, knowledge barriers and research opportunities.” J. Chem. Eng. Proc., 2005, 44, 209–214.
 O. Ojokoh and R. A. O. Gabriel, “A comparative study on the storage of yam chips (gbodo) and yam flour (elubo).” African J. Biotech., 2010, 9(21): 3175-3177.
 J. M. Babajide, O. B. Oyewole and O. A. Obadina, “An assessment of the microbial safety of dry yam (gbodo) processed in southwest Nigeria.” African J. Biotech., 2006, 5(2): 157-161.
 O. K. Achi and P. Akubor, “Microbilogical characterization of yam fermented for yam flour production.” World J. Micro. Biotech., 2000, 16(1): 3-7.
 O. B. Oyewole and O. A. Afolami, “Quality and preference of different cassava varieties for 'lafun' production.” J. Food Tech. in Africa, 2001, 6(1): 27-29
 R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Thresh and A. C. Bellotti, Cassava, Biology, Production and Utilization. CABI publishing, UK, 2001, pp. 332.
 Q. Wilhemina, J. I. GayinYawson and W. A. Plahar, ‘Characteristics of various cassava processing methods and the adoption requirements in Ghana.” J. Root Crops, 2009, 35(1): 59-68.
 T. N. Fagbemi and O. Olaofe, Functional properties of raw and pre-cooked taro (Colocasia esculenta) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flours, In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual conference of the Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology, Abeokuta, 1998, pp. 154-155.
 V. Lebot, “Tropical root and tuber crops: Cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids.” Crop Production Science in Horticulture, No. 17, CABI publishing, UK, 2009, pp. 413.
 J. A. Ngalani, “Valorisation du plantain: étude de l'obtention, de la characterisation et de l'utilisation des farines - Conservation en frais.” Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, France. 1989, pp.159.
 E. S. Rita, “Organoleptic and nutritional analysis of taro and wheat flour composite bread.” World J. Dairy Food Sci., 2011, 6 (2): 175-179
 M. E. Ukhum and I. E. Ukpebor, “Production of instant plantain flour, sensory evaluation and physico-chemical changes during storage.” Food Chem., 1991, 42(3): 287-299.
 V. F. Abioye, B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye, G. O. Babarinde and M. K. Adesigbin, “Chemical and physicochemical sensory properties of soyplantain.” African J. Food Sci., 2011, 5(4): 176-180.
 AOAC, Official methods of analysis (16th edition). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C. 2000, pp. 19.
 O. J. Olayemi, A. R. Oyi and T. S. Allagh, “Comparative evaluation of maize, rice and wheat starch powders as pharmaceutical excipients.” J. Pharm. Sci., 2008, 7(1): 131– 138.
 B. S. Ogunsina, C. Radha and R. S. Govardhansingh, “Physico-Chemical and functional Properties of full fat and defatted Moringa oleifera kernel flour.” Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 2010, 45: 2433-2439.
 S. M. Razavi, A. Rafe, A. A. Mohammad and M. T. Mohammmadi, “The physical properties of pistachio nut and its kernel as a function of moisture content and variety. Part II. Gravimetrical Properties.” J. Food Eng., 2007, 81(1): 218-225.
 K. O. Kulkarni, D. N. Kulkarni and U. M. Ingle, “Sorghum malt based weaning food formulation preparation, functional properties and nutritive value.” Food Nutri. Bulletin, 1991, 13(14): 322-327.
 C. I. Iwuoha, “Comparative evaluation of physicochemical qualities of flours from steam-processed yam tubers.” J. Food Chem. 2004, 85: 541-551.
 Statistical Analytical Software for Personal Computers. Release 9.1. Cary NC 27513, USA. SAS Institute Inc., 2002.
 I. Oduro, W. O. Ellis, N. T. Dziedzoave and K. Nimako-Yeboah, “Quality of gari from selected processing zones in Ghana.” Food Control J., 2000, 11, 297-303.
 V. Ganesan, K. A. Rosentrater and K. Muthukumarappan, “Flowability and handling characteristics of bulk solids and powders.” Biosys. Eng., 2010, 10: 1425 – 1435.
 R. Moreyra and M. Peleg, “Effect of equilibrium relative humidity on the bulk properties of selected food powders.” J. Food Sci. 1981, 46: 1918-1922.
 S. P. Duffy and V. M. Puri, “Effect of moisture content on flow properties of powders.” American Soc. of Agric. Eng., Paper No. 9440331994.
 C. I. Owuamanam, N. C Ihediohanma and E. C. Nwanekezi, “Sorption isotherm, particle size, chemical and physical properties of cocoyam corn flours.” Researcher, 2010, 2(8): 11-18.
 A. A. Adebowale, S. A. Sanni and F. O. Oladapo “Chemical, functional and sensory properties of instant yam breadfruit flour.” Nig. Food J., 2008, 26(1): 2-12.
 M. J. Lewis, “Density and specific gravity of Foods.” In: Physical Properties of Foods and Food Processing Systems. Ellis Howard Ltd. Chichester, England. 1987, pp 53-57.
 Y. C. Zhou, B. H. Xu, A. B. Yu and P. Zulli. “An experimental and numerical study of the angle of repose of coarse spheres.” Powder Tech., 2002, 125(1): 45–54.
 J. Ruales, S. Valencia and B. Nair. “Effect of processing on the physiochemical characteristics of guinea flour (Chenopodium guinea).” Starch, 1993, 46(1): 13-19.
 A. Schiraldi and D. Fessas. “The role of water in dough formation and bread quality.” In Breadmaking, Second Ed. 2012, pp. 362-369.