CO2 Emission and Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Frame Designed by Performance Based Design Approach
As greenhouse effect has been recognized as serious environmental problem of the world, interests in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which comprises major part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been increased recently. Since construction industry takes a relatively large portion of total CO2 emissions of the world, extensive studies about reducing CO2 emissions in construction and operation of building have been carried out after the 2000s. Also, performance based design (PBD) methodology based on nonlinear analysis has been robustly developed after Northridge Earthquake in 1994 to assure and assess seismic performance of building more exactly because structural engineers recognized that prescriptive code based design approach cannot address inelastic earthquake responses directly and assure performance of building exactly. Although CO2 emissions and PBD approach are recent rising issues on construction industry and structural engineering, there were few or no researches considering these two issues simultaneously. Thus, the objective of this study is to minimize the CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach in structural design stage considering structural materials. 4 story and 4 span reinforced concrete building optimally designed to minimize CO2 emissions and cost of building and to satisfy specific seismic performance (collapse prevention in maximum considered earthquake) of building satisfying prescriptive code regulations using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Optimized design result showed that minimized CO2 emissions and cost of building were acquired satisfying specific seismic performance. Therefore, the methodology proposed in this paper can be used to reduce both CO2 emissions and cost of building designed by PBD approach.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1112181Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1062
 T’serclaes, “Financing energy efficient homes: Existing policy responses to financial barriers,” International Energy Agency, France, 2007.
 M. Airaksinen, P. Matilainen, “A Carbon footprint of an office building,” Energies, vol. 4, pp. 1197-1210, 2011.
 A.A. Guggemos, A. Horvath, “Comparison of environmental effects of steel- and concrete-framed buildings,” J. Infrastruct. Syst., vol. 11, pp. 93-101, 2005.
 H.S. Park, H. Lee, Y. Kim, T. Hong, S.W. Choi, “Evaluation of the influence of design factors on the CO2 emissions and costs of reinforced concrete columns,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 82, pp. 378-384, 2014.
 H.S. Park, B. Kwon, Y. Shin, Y. Kim, T. Hong, S.W. Choi, “Cost and CO2 emission optimization of steel reinforced concrete columns in high-rise buildings,” Energies, vol. 6, pp. 5609-5624, 2013.
 T. Hong, C.Y. Ji, M.H. Jang, H.S. Park, “Predicting the CO 2 emission of concrete using statistical analysis. Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management,” vol. 2, pp. 53-60, 2012.
 C.Y. Ji, T. Hong, H.S. Park, “Comparative analysis of decision-making methods for integrating cost and CO2 emission - Focus on building structural design,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 72, pp.186-194, 2014.
 M. Fragiadakis, M. Papadrakakis, “Performance-based optimum seismic design of reinforced concrete structures,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., vol. 37, pp. 825-844, 2008.
 X.K. Zou, C.M. Chan, G. Li, Q. Wang, “Multiobjective optimization for performance-based design of reinforced concrete frames,” ASCE. J. Struct. Eng., vol. 133, pp. 1462-1474, 2007.
 I. Hajirasouliha, P. Asadi, K. Pilakoutas, “An efficient performance-based seismic design method for reinforced concrete frames,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., vol. 41 pp. 663-679, 2011.
 K. Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, T.A.M.T. Meyarivan, “A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II,” IEEE. T. Evolut. Comput., vol. 6 pp. 182-197, 2002.