Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30458
Biomechanical Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison of Human Arm Motion to Mitigate Astronaut Task during Extra Vehicular Activity
Abstract:During manned exploration of space, missions will require astronaut crewmembers to perform Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for a variety of tasks. These EVAs take place after long periods of operations in space, and in and around unique vehicles, space structures and systems. Considering the remoteness and time spans in which these vehicles will operate, EVA system operations should utilize common worksites, tools and procedures as much as possible to increase the efficiency of training and proficiency in operations. All of the preparations need to be carried out based on studies of astronaut motions. Until now, development and training activities associated with the planned EVAs in Russian and U.S. space programs have relied almost exclusively on physical simulators. These experimental tests are expensive and time consuming. During the past few years a strong increase has been observed in the use of computer simulations due to the fast developments in computer hardware and simulation software. Based on this idea, an effort to develop a computational simulation system to model human dynamic motion for EVA is initiated. This study focuses on the simulation of an astronaut moving the orbital replaceable units into the worksites or removing them from the worksites. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human arm model. Simulation work described in the study improves on the realism of previous efforts, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion. To demonstrate the utility of this approach human arm model is simulated virtually using ADAMS/LifeMOD® software. Kinematic mechanism for the astronaut’s task is studied from joint angles and torques. Simulation results obtained is validated with numerical simulation based on the principles of Newton-Euler method. Torques determined using mathematical model are compared among the subjects to know the grace and consistency of the task performed. We conclude that due to uncertain nature of exploration-class EVA, a virtual model developed using multibody dynamics approach offers significant advantages over traditional human modeling approaches.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1111602Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1721
 Riccio G E, Vernon Mcdnald P, Peters B T, "Understanding skill in EVA mass handling", volume 1: theoretical and operational foundations. NASA TP-3684, 1997.
 John M. Hollerbach, Tamar Flash," Dynamic Interactions Between Limb Segments During Planar Arm Movement", Biological Cybernetics, springer-verlag, volume 44, pp.67-77, 1982.
 F.A. Mussa-Ivaldi, N. Hogan, E. Bizzi, "Neural, Mechanical and Geometric factors subserving arm posture in humans", The Journal of Neuroscience, volume 5, page 10, pp. 2732-2743, 1985.
 NingLan, "Analysis of an optimal control model of multi-joint arm movements", Biological Cybernetics, springer-verlag, volume 76, pp.107-117, 1997.
 David B. Rahn. “A Dynamic Model of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU): Human Performance issues during EVA”, Master thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1997.
 Nikhil Bhushan, Reza Shadmehr, "Computational nature of human adaptive control during learning of reaching movements in force fields", Biological Cybernetics, springer-verlag, volume 81, pp.39-60, 1999.
 Masataka Suzuki, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Ken'ichi Matsunami, "Simplified dynamics model of planar two-joint arm movements", Journal of Biomechanics, volume 33, pp.925-931, 2000.
 Leia Abigail Stirling. “Development of astronaut reorientation methods: A computational and experimental study”. Doctorial Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2008.
 Stirling L, Willcox K, Newman D J, “Development of a computational model for astronaut reorientation”, Journal of Biomechanics,43 (2010), 2309–2314.
 TimotejKodek, Marko Munih, "An analysis of static and dynamic torques in elbow flexion-extension movements", Simulation modelling practice and theory, 11(2003), 297-311.
 XiangyuXie, “Absorbed power as a measure of whole body vehicular vibration exposure”, Thesis, Concordia University Montreai, Quebec, Canada, June 2001.
 Wael Abbas, Ossama B. Abouelatta, Optimization of Biodynamic Seated Human Models Using Genetic Algorithms, Engineering, 2010, 2, 710-719.
 Jay (Zhijijan) Zhao, GopalNarwani, “Development of a human body finite element model for restraint system R&D applications”, TAKATA – Automotive Systems Laboratory, Inc., Paper Number 05-0399.
 Dirk Fressmann, Thomas Munz, “FE human modelling in crash – Aspects of numerical modelling and current applications in automotive industry”,6 – LS DYNA Anwenderforum Frankenthal 2007.
 Jorge Ambrósio and Miguel Silva, “Multibody dynamics approaches for biomechanical modeling in human impact applications”, IUTAM Proceedings on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications, 61–80.
 Vadiraj. B, Omkar S.N, Kandagal S.B, and Kiran M.C, (2012) 'Human response characteristics to impact conditions during spacecraft takeoff and impact landing', International journal of aerospace innovation, Volume 4, number3+4, 2012, pp.95-102.