Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30458
The Characteristics of Static Plantar Loading in the First-Division College Sprint Athletes

Authors: Tong-Hsien Chow


Background: Plantar pressure measurement is an effective method for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating movement performance of the foot. The purpose of this study is to explore the sprint athletes’ plantar loading characteristics and pain profiles in static standing. Methods: Experiments were undertaken on 80 first-division college sprint athletes and 85 healthy non-sprinters. ‘JC Mat’, the optical plantar pressure measurement was applied to examining the differences between both groups in the arch index (AI), three regional and six distinct sub-regional plantar pressure distributions (PPD), and footprint characteristics. Pain assessment and self-reported health status in sprint athletes were examined for evaluating their common pain areas. Results: Findings from the control group, the males’ AI fell into the normal range. Yet, the females’ AI was classified as the high-arch type. AI values of the sprint group were found to be significantly lower than the control group. PPD were higher at the medial metatarsal bone of both feet and the lateral heel of the right foot in the sprint group, the males in particular, whereas lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches of both feet. Footprint characteristics tended to support the results of the AI and PPD, and this reflected the corresponding pressure profiles. For the sprint athletes, the lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common musculoskeletal pains. Conclusions: The sprint athletes’ AI were generally classified as high arches, and that their PPD were categorized between the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings also correspond to the profiles of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles appeared to correspond to the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. The findings reflected upon the possible link between high arches and PFPS. The correlation between high-arched runners and PFPS development is worth further studies.

Keywords: arch index, patellofemoral pain syndrome, sprint athletes, plantar pressure distributions, high arches

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1371


[1] Cavanagh PR, Rodgers MM, Iiboshi A: Pressure distribution under symptom-free feet during barefoot standing. Foot Ankle 7: 262, 1987.
[2] Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, et al: A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries. Br J Sports Med 36: 95, 2002.
[3] Simkin A, Leichter I, Giladi M, et al: Combined effect of foot arch structure and an orthotic device on stress fractures. Foot Ankle 10: 25, 1989.
[4] Kaye RA, Jahss MH: Tibialis posterior: a review of anatomy and biomechanics in relation to support of the medial longitudinal arch. Foot Ankle 11: 244, 1991.
[5] Razeghi M, Batt ME: Foot type classification: a critical review of current methods. Gait Posture 15: 282, 2002.
[6] Butts JF, Gebke KB: Getting injured runners back on track. J Fam Pract 60: 646, 2011.
[7] Williams DS 3rd, McClay IS, Hamill J: Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. Clin Biomech 16: 341, 2001.
[8] Dahle LK, Mueller M, Delitto A, et al: Visual assessment of foot type and relationship of foot type to lower extremity injury. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 14: 70, 1991.
[9] McCrory JL, Young MJ, Boulton AJM, et al: Arch index as a predictor of arch height. The Foot 7: 79, 1997.
[10] Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ: The feet of overweight and obese young children: are they flat or fat? Obesity 14: 1949, 2006.
[11] Cavanagh PR, Rodgers MM: The arch index: a useful measure from footprints. J Biomech 20: 547, 1987.
[12] Wearing SC, Hills AP, Byrne NM, et al: The arch index: a measure of flat or fat feet? Foot Ankle Int 25: 575, 2004.
[13] Williams DS, McClay IS: Measurements used to characterize the foot and the medial longitudinal arch: reliability and validity. Phys Ther 80: 864, 2000.
[14] Chu WC, Lee SH, Chu W, et al: The use of arch index to characterize arch height: a digital image processing approach. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 42: 1088, 1995.
[15] Williams DS 3rd, Tierney RN, Butler RJ: Increased medial longitudinal arch mobility, lower extremity kinematics, and ground reaction forces in high-arched runners. J Athl Train 49: 290, 2014.
[16] Cousins SD, Morrison SC, Drechsler WI: The reliability of plantar pressure assessment during barefoot level walking in children aged 7-11 years. J Foot Ankle Res 5: 8, 2012.
[17] Hessert MJ, Vyas M, Leach J, et al: Foot pressure distribution during walking in young and old adults. BMC Geriatr 5: 1, 2005.
[18] Orlin MN, McPoil TG: Plantar pressure assessment. Phys Ther 80: 399, 2000.
[19] Stavlas P, Grivas TB, Michas C, et al: The evolution of foot morphology in children between 6 and 17 years of age: a cross-sectional study based on footprints in a Mediterranean population. J Foot Ankle Surg 44: 424, 2005.
[20] Franettovich MM, McPoil TG, Russell T, et al: The ability to predict dynamic foot posture from static measurements. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97: 115, 2007.
[21] Imhauser CW, Siegler S, Abidi NA, et al: The effect of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction on the plantar pressure characteristics and the kinematics of the arch and hindfoot. Clin. Biomech 19: 161, 2006.
[22] Jonely H, Brismée JM, Sizer PS Jr, et al: Relationships between clinical measures of static foot posture and plantar pressure during static standing and walking. Clin Biomech 26: 873, 2011.
[23] Minns RJ, Craxford AD: Pressure under the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison of static and dynamic methods of assessment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 187: 235, 1984.
[24] Menz HB, Munteanu SE, Zammit GV, et al: Foot structure and function in older people with radiographic osteoarthritis of the medial midfoot. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 18: 317, 2010.
[25] Kaufman KR, Brodine SK, Shaffer RA, et al: The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries. Am J Sports Med 27: 585, 1999.
[26] Sneyers CJ, Lysens R, Feys H, et al: Influence of malalignment of feet on the plantar pressure pattern in running. Foot Ankle Int 16: 624, 1995.
[27] Bisiaux M, Moretto P: The effects of fatigue on plantar pressure distribution in walking. Gait Posture 28: 693, 2008.
[28] Krauss I, Grau S, Mauch M, et al: Sex-related differences in foot shape. Ergonomics 51: 1693, 2008.
[29] Zifchock RA, Davis I, Hillstrom H, et al: The effect of gender, age, and lateral dominance on arch height and arch stiffness. Foot Ankle Int 27: 367, 2006.
[30] Willson JD, Ellis ED, Kernozek TW: Plantar loading characteristics during walking in females with and without patellofemoral pain. JAPMA 105: 1, 2015.
[31] Thijs Y, Van Tiggelen D, Roosen P, et al: A prospective study on gait-related intrinsic risk factors for patellofemoral pain. Clin J Sport Med 17: 437, 2007.
[32] Thijs Y, De Clercq D, Roosen P, et al: Gait-related intrinsic risk factors for patellofemoral pain in novice recreational runners. Br J Sports Med 42: 466, 2008.
[33] Willems TM, De Ridder R, Roosen P: The effect of a long-distance run on plantar pressure distribution during running. Gait Posture 35: 405, 2012.
[34] Stolwijk NM, Duysens J, Louwerens JW, et al: Plantar pressure changes after long-distance walking. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42: 2264, 2010.
[35] Fourchet F, Kelly L, Horobeanu C, et al: Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in adolescent runners at low vs. high running velocity. Gait Posture 35: 685, 2012.
[36] Nagel A, Fernholz F, Kibele C, et al: Long distance running increases plantar pressures beneath the metatarsal heads: a barefoot walking investigation of 200 marathon runners. Gait Posture 27: 152, 2008.
[37] Nigg BM, Cole GK, Nachbauer W: Effects of arch height of the foot on angular motion of the lower extremities in running. J Biomech 26: 909, 1993.
[38] Gilmour JC, Burns Y: The measurement of the medial longitudinal arch in children. Foot Ankle Int 22: 493, 2001.
[39] Volpon JB: Footprint analysis during the growth period. J Pediatr Orthop 14: 83, 1994.
[40] Chang JH, Wang SH, Kuo CL, et al: Prevalence of flexible flatfoot in Taiwanese school-aged children in relation to obesity, gender, and age. Eur J Pediatr 169: 447, 2010.
[41] Hasegawa H, Yamauchi T, Kraemer WJ: Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite-level half marathon. J Strength Cond Res 21: 888, 2007.
[42] Chang YW, Hung W, Wu HW, et al: Measurements of Foot Arch in Standing, Level Walking, Vertical Jump and Sprint Start. Int J Sports Med 2: 35, 2010.
[43] Keller TS, Weisberger AM, Ray JL, et al: Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running. Clin Biomech 11: 253, 1996.
[44] Ho IJ, Hou YY, Yang CH, et al: Comparison of Plantar Pressure Distribution between Different Speed and Incline During Treadmill Jogging. J Sports Sci Med 9: 154, 2010.
[45] Mølgaard C, Lundbye-Christensen S, Simonsen O: High prevalence of foot problems in the Danish population: a survey of causes and associations. Foot 20: 7, 2010.
[46] Nawoczenski DA, Cook TM, Saltzman CL: The effect of foot orthotics on three-dimensional kinematics of the leg and rearfoot during running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 21: 317, 1995.
[47] Pohl MB, Rabbito M, Ferber R: The role of tibialis posterior fatigue on foot kinematics during walking. J Foot Ankle Res 3: 6, 2010.