Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30464
The Dilemma of Retention in the Context of Rapidly Growing Economies Based on the Effectiveness of HRM Policies: A Case Study of Qatar

Authors: A. Qayed Al-Emadi, C. Schwabenland, B. Czarnecka


In 2009, the new HRM policy was implemented in Qatar for public sector organisations. The purpose of this research is to examine how Qatar’s 2009 HRM policy was significant in influencing employee retention in public organisations. The conducted study utilised quantitative methodology to analyse the data on employees’ perceptions of such HRM practices as Performance Management, Rewards and Promotion, Training and Development associated with the HRM policy in public organisations in comparison to semi-private organisations. Employees of seven public and semi-private organisations filled in the questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale to present quantitative results. The data was analysed with the correlation and multiple regression statistical analyses. It was found that Performance Management had the relationship with Employee Retention, and Rewards and Promotion influenced Job Satisfaction in public organisations. Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention was also observed. However, no significant differences were observed in the role of HRM practices in public and semi-private organisations.

Keywords: Performance Management, Training and Development, Promotion, Job Satisfaction, rewards, employee retention, SHRM, configurationally perspective

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2157


[1] Chuang, SF 2013, ‘Evaluating training and development practices in Taiwan: Challenges and opportunities’, Human Resource Development International, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 203-237.
[2] Truss, C 2008, ‘Continuity and change: The role of the HR function in the modern public sector’, Public Administration, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1071-1088.
[3] Berrebi, C, Mortofrell, F & Tanner, JC 2009, ‘Qatar’s labour markets at a crucial crossroad’, Middle East Journal, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 421-442.
[4] Weber, A 2011, ‘What is a knowledge economy? Oil-rich nations postoil’, International Journal of Science in Society, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 161- 169.
[5] Afiouni, F, Ruel, H & Schuler, R 2014, ‘HRM in the Middle East: Toward a greater understanding’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 133-143.
[6] Forstenlechner, I & Rutledge, E 2010, ‘Unemployment in the Gulf: Time to update the social context’, Middle East policy, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 38-51.
[7] Council of Ministers Secretariat General 2009, Law no (8) of year 2009 on the promulgation of the human resources management laws, CMSG, Qatar.
[8] General Secretariat for Development Planning 2011, Qatar national development strategy 2011-2016, GSDP, Qatar.
[9] Bakshi, S, Mathur, N, Bhagat, G & Kalyankar, D 2014, ‘Strategic human resource management approaches and practices and organizational performance’, Abhinav International Monthly Refereed Journal of Research in Management & Technology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 86- 95.
[10] Collins, CJ & Clark, KD 2003, ‘Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance: The role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 740- 751.
[11] Giauque, D, Anderfuhren-Biget, S & Varone, F 2013, ‘HRM practices, intrinsic motivators, and organisational performance in the public sector’, Public Personnel Management, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 123-150.
[12] Yamamoto, H 2013, ‘The relationship between employees’ perceptions of human resource management and their retention: from the viewpoint of attitudes toward job-specialties’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 747-767.
[13] Kehoe, R & Wright, P 2013, ‘The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors’, Journal of Management, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 366-391.
[14] Majumder, M 2012, ‘Human resource management practices and employees’ satisfaction towards private banking sector in Bangladesh’, International Review of Management and Marketing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.52-58.
[15] Paille, P, Bourdeau, L & Galois, I 2010, ‘Support, trust, satisfaction, intent to leave and citizenship at organizational level: A social exchange approach’, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 41-58.
[16] Payne, GT 2006, ‘Examining configurations and firm performance in a suboptimal equifinality context’, Organization Science, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 756–770.
[17] Arshad, A, Azhar, S & Khawaja, K 2014, ‘Dynamics of HRM practices and organizational performance: quest for strategic effectiveness in Pakistani organizations’, International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 93-101.
[18] Delery, JE & Doty, DH 1996, ‘Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: tests of universalistic, contingency and configurational performance predictions’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 802-835.
[19] Waiganjo, E & Awino, Z 2012, ‘Strategic human resource management and corporate performance: a critical review of literature’, DBA Africa Management Review, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 78-93.
[20] Maryam, M & Sina, Z 2013, ‘Survey human resource management in Iranian small enterprises’, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 698-712.
[21] Michie, J & Sheehan, M 2005, ‘Business strategy, human resources, labour market flexibility and competitive advantage’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 445-464.
[22] Choi, J & Lee, K2013, ‘Effects of employees' perceptions on the relationship between HR practices and firm performance for Korean firms’, Personnel Review, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 573-594.
[23] Trehan, S & Setia, K 2014, ‘Human resource management practices and organizational performance: an Indian perspective’, Global Journal of Finance and Management, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 789-796.
[24] Pourkiani, M, Salajeghe, S & Ranjbar, M 2011, ‘Strategic human resource management and organizational knowledge creation capability’, International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e- Management and e-Learning, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 416-425.
[25] Onyemah, V, Rouzies, D & Panagopoulos, NG, 2010, ‘How HRM control affects boundary-spanning employees’ behavioural strategies and satisfaction: The moderating impact of cultural performance orientation’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1951-1975.
[26] Shih, H, Chiang, Y & Hsu, C 2006, ‘Can high performance work systems really lead to better performance?’ International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 741-763.
[27] Martin-Alcazar, F, Romero-Fernandez, P & Sanchez-Gardey, G 2005, ‘Strategic human resource management: integrating the universalistic, contingent, configurational and contextual perspectives’, Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 633-659.
[28] Alusa, K & Kariuki, A 2015, ‘Human resource management practices, employee outcome and performance of Coffee Research Foundation, Kenya’, European Journal of Business and Management, vol. 7, no.3, pp. 72-80.
[29] Innes, P & Wiesner, R 2012, ‘Beyond HRM intensity: Exploring intrafunction HRM clusters in SMEs’, Small Enterprise Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 32-51.
[30] Meyers, M & Woerkom, M 2014, ‘The influence of underlying philosophies on talent management: theory, implications for practice, and research agenda’, Journal of World Business, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 192- 203.
[31] Abdullah, Z, Ahsan, N & Alam, S 2009, ‘The effect of human resource management practices on business performance among private companies in Malaysia’, International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 65-72.
[32] Carraher, SM 2011, ‘Turnover prediction using attitudes towards benefits, pay, and pay satisfaction among employees and entrepreneurs in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania’, Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25-52.
[33] Hong, E, Hao, L, Kumar, R, Ramendran, C & Kadiresan, V 2012, ‘An effectiveness of human resource management practices on employee retention in institute of higher learning: a regression analysis’, International Journal of Business Research and Management, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 60-79.
[34] Edgar, F & Geare, A 2005, ‘HRM practice and employee attitudes: different measures - different results’, Personnel Review, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 534-622.
[35] Tsai, C, Edwards, P & Sengupta, S 2010, ‘The associations between organisational performance, employee attitudes and human resource management practices’, Journal of General Management, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-20.
[36] Yamamoto, H 2011, ‘The relationship between employee benefit management and employee retention’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22 no. 17, pp. 3550-3564.
[37] ALDamoe, F, Yazam, M & Bin Ahmid, K 2011, ‘The mediating effect of HRM outcomes (employee retention) on the relationship between HRM practices and organisational performance’, International Journal of Human Resource Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 75-88.
[38] Den Hartog, D, Boon, C, Verburg, R & Croon, M 2013, ‘HRM, communication, satisfaction, and perceived performance: a cross-level test’, Journal of Management, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1637-1665.
[39] Hasin, HH & Omar, NH 2007, ‘An empirical study on job satisfaction, job-related stress and intention to leave among adult staff in public accounting firms in Melaka’, Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 21-39.
[40] Bockerman, P & Ilmakunnas, P 2012, ‘The job satisfaction-productivity nexus: A study using matched survey and register data’, Industrial & Labour Relations Review, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 244-262.
[41] Rehman, S 2012, ‘A study of public sector organisations with respect to recruitment, job satisfaction and retention’, Global Business & Management Research: An International Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 76- 88.
[42] Sarker, M & Afroze, R 2014, ‘Can HRM practices improve job satisfaction of Ready Made Garment (RMG) workers in Bangladesh? An alternative solution to recent unrest’, International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 185-194.
[43] Okpara, JO & Wynn, P 2008, ‘Human resource management practices in a transition economy: Challenges and prospects’, Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 1, pp. 57-76.
[44] Reiche, BS 2009, ‘To quit or not to quit: Organisational determinants of voluntary turnover in MNC subsidiaries in Singapore’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1362-1380.
[45] Nishii, L, Lepak, D & Schneider, B 2008, ‘Employee attributions of the “why” of HR practices: Their effects on employee attitudes and behaviors, and customer satisfaction’, Personnel Psychology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 503-545.
[46] Rasouli, R, Mooghali, A, Mousavi, M & Rashidi, M 2013, ‘Designing and explaining the model of knowledge workers’ retention with emphasis on HRM practices’, Management Science Letters, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1145–1154.
[47] Doherty, R 2010, ‘Making employee engagement an end-to-end practice’, Strategic HR Review, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 32-37.
[48] Kim, S 2012, ‘The impact of human resource management on state government IT employee turnover intentions’, Public Personnel Management, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 257-279.
[49] Tabiu, A & Nura, A 2013, ‘Assessing the effects of human resource management (HRM) practices on employee job performance: a study of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto’, Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 247-259.
[50] Chapman, C 2009, ‘Retention begins before day one: Orientation and socialisation in libraries’, New Library World, vol. 10, no. 3/4, pp. 122- 135.
[51] Ghosh, P, Satyawadi, R, Joshi, JP & Shodman, M 2013, ‘Who stays with you? Factors predicting employees’ intention to stay’, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 288-312.
[52] Ananthan, BR & Sudheendra, RLN 2011, ‘Dynamics of retention: Practices and strategies’, SCMS Journal of Indian Management, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 120-125.
[53] Govaerts, N, Kyndt, E, Dochy, F & Baert, H 2011, ‘Influence of learning and working climate on the retention of talented employees’, Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 35-55.
[54] Tracey, JB 2014, ‘A review of human resources management research: The past 10 years and implications for moving forward’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1- 38.
[55] Glen, C 2006, ‘Key skills retention and motivation: The war for talent still rages and retention is the high ground’, Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 37-45.
[56] Bao, C & Analoui, F 2011, ‘An exploration of the impact of strategic international human resource management on firm performance: the case of foreign MNCs in China’, International Journal of Management & Information Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 31-40.
[57] Bartel, A. 2004, ‘Human resource management and organizational performance: evidence from retail banking’, Industrial and Labour Relations Review, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 181-195.
[58] Harris, K, Wheeler, A, & Kacmar, M 2009, ‘Leader–member exchange and empowerment: Direct and interactive effects on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance’, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 371–382.
[59] Richman, AL, Civian, JT, Shannon, LL, Hill, EJ & Brennan, RT 2008, ‘The relationship of perceived flexibility, supportive work-life policies, and use of formal flexible arrangements and occasional flexibility to employee engagement and expected retention’, Community, Work & Family, vol. 11 no. 2, pp. 183-197.
[60] Al-Kahtani, N & Khan, N 2014, ‘An exploratory study of human resource development practices in Telecom industry in Saudi Arabia: a case study of private sector’, European Scientific Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 341-355.
[61] Chen, M 2014, ‘The effect of training on employee retention’, International Conference on Global Economy, Commerce and Service Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 356-359.
[62] Hausknecht, JP, Rodda, JM & Howard, MJ 2009, ‘Targeted employee retention: Performance-based and job-related differences in reported reasons for staying’, Human Resource Management, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 269-288.
[63] Holtom, BC, Mitchell, TR, Lee, TW & Eberly, MB 2008, ‘Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future’, The Academy of Management Annals, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 231-274.
[64] Saks, AM 2006, ‘Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7, pp. 600- 619.
[65] Bhatti, MA, Battour, MM, Sundram, VPK & Othman, AA 2013, ‘Transfer of training: Does it truly happen? An examination of support, instrumentality, retention and learner readiness on the transfer of motivation and transfer of training’, European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 273-297.
[66] Gberevbie, DE 2010, ‘Organisational retention strategies and employee performance of Zenith bank in Nigeria’, African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 61-74.
[67] Sanders, K, Dorenbosch, L, & De Reuver, R 2008, ‘The impact of individual and shared employee perceptions of HRM on affective commitment: considering climate strength’, Personnel Review, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 412-425.
[68] Rahman, W & Nas, Z 2013, ‘Employee development and turnover intention: Theory validation’, European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 564-579.
[69] Tangthong, S 2014, ‘The effects of human resource management practices on employee retention in Thailand’s multinational corporations’, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 1-30.
[70] Gkorezis, P & Petridou, E 2012, ‘The effect of extrinsic rewards on public and private sector employees’ psychological empowerment: A comparative approach’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 3596-3612.
[71] Ansari, N 2011, ‘Employee perception of HRM practices: impact on commitment to the organisation’, South Asian Journal of Management, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 122-149.
[72] Dhiman, G & Mohanty, R 2010, ‘HRM practices, attitudinal outcomes and turnover intent: an empirical study in Indian oil and gas exploration and production sector’, South Asian Journal of Management, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74-104.
[73] Katou, A 2013, ‘Justice, trust and employee reactions: an empirical examination of the HRM system’, Management Research Review, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 674-699.
[74] Rahman, M, Akhter, R, Chowdhury, S, Islam, S & Haque, M 2013, ‘HRM practices and its impact on employee satisfaction: a case of pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh’, International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 62-67.