Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30458
An Educational Application of Online Games for Learning Difficulties
Abstract:The current paper presents the results of a conducted case study. During the past few years the number of children diagnosed with Learning Difficulties has drastically augmented and especially the cases of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a deficit in working memory functions. The review of the literature indicates a plethora of educational software that aim at training and enhancing the working memory. Nevertheless, in the current paper, the possibility of using for the same purpose free, online games will be explored. Another issue of interest is the potential effect of the working memory training to the core symptoms of ADHD. In order to explore the abovementioned research questions, three digital tests are employed, all of which are developed on the E-slate platform by the author, in order to check the levels of ADHD’s symptoms and to be used as diagnostic tools, both in the beginning and in the end of the case study. The tools used during the main intervention of the research are free online games for the training of working memory. The research and the data analysis focus on the following axes: a) the presence and the possible change in two of the core symptoms of ADHD, attention and impulsivity and b) a possible change in the general cognitive abilities of the individual. The case study was conducted with the participation of a thirteen year-old, female student, diagnosed with ADHD, during after-school hours. The results of the study indicate positive changes both in the levels of attention and impulsivity. Therefore, we conclude that the training of working memory through the use of free, online games has a positive impact on the characteristics of ADHD. Finally, concerning the second research question, the change in general cognitive abilities, no significant changes were noted.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1108761Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1367
 Gaddes, W.H., Edgell, D. (1994). Learning disabilities and brain function: A neuropsychological approach, New York, Ed. Springer - Verlang, Third ed.
 Koumoula, A. (2012). The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span. Psychiatrike= Psychiatriki, 23, 49- 59.
 Steiner, N. J., Sheldrick, R. C., Gotthelf, D., & Perrin, E. C. (2011). Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial. Clinical Pediatrics, 50(7), 615-622.
 American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5®), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
 Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., & Westerberg, H. (2002). Training of working memory in children with ADHD. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 24(6), 781-791.
 Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., Place, M., Dunning, D. L., Hilton, K. A., & Elliott, J. G. (2010). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 827-836.
 Gomes, L. (2011). Attention and memory in boys with predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD.
 Trout, A. L., Lienemann, T. O., Reid, R., & Epstein, M. H. (2007). A review of non-medication interventions to improve the academic performance of children and youth with ADHD. Remedial and Special Education, 28(4), 207-226.
 National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults. Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society (UK); 2009. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 72.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53652/.
 Pope, A. T., & Bogart, E. H. (1996). Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder. Child Study Journal, 26(1), 39-50.
 Wilkinson, N., Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2008). Online video game therapy for mental health concerns: A review. International journal of social psychiatry, 54(4), 370-382.
 Kynigos, C. (2007). Half-baked Logo Microworlds as Boundary Objects in Integrated Design. Informatics in Education 6, no. 2: 335–358.
 Kunda, M., McGreggor, K., & Goel, A. K. (2009, October). Addressing the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test of" General" Intelligence. In AAAI Fall Symposium: Multi-Representational Architectures for Human-Level Intelligence.
 Raven, J. (2000). The Raven's progressive matrices: change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive psychology, 41(1), 1-48.
 Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 18(6), 643.
 Liotti, M., Woldorff, M. G., Perez III, R., & Mayberg, H. S. (2000). An ERP study of the temporal course of the Stroop color-word interference effect. Neuropsychologia, 38(5), 701-711.
 Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., ... & Westerberg, H. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD-a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(2), 177-186.
 Epstein, J. N., Erkanli, A., Conners, C. K., Klaric, J., Costello, J. E., & Angold, A. (2003). Relations between continuous performance test performance measures and ADHD behaviors. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 31(5), 543-554.
 Robson, C. (2007). How to do a research project: a guide for undergraduate students. Blackwell.
 Smyrnaiou, Z., Petropoulou, E., Margoudi, M. & Kostikas, I. (2014). Patternization of an Inquiry-based design process for the construction of a structurally sound educational tool: The paradigm of a secondary development tool negotiating scientific concepts. Manuscript submitted for publication.
 Baddeley, A. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255(5044), 556-559.
 Cogtest. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from http://www.cogtest.com/tests/cognitive_int/sa.html
 About Working Memory. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from http://www.spaceminespatrol.com/
 Pattern Memory - Free Brain Game. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from http://www.memory-improvement-tips.com/pattern-memory.html
 Free Concentration Card Game - Flipped Out. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from http://www.memory-improvement-tips.com/concentrationcard- game.html.