Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform
This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors in the assessment of human postural stability and balance on an unstable platform. In this work, FBG sensor Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) is developed for measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. The studies are validated by comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer. The results obtained from the developed FBGSAD depict qualitative similarities with the data recorded by commercial accelerometer. The advantage of the FBGSAD is that it measures simultaneously plantar strain distribution and postural stability of the subject along with its inherent benefits like non-requirement of energizing voltage to the sensor, electromagnetic immunity and simple design which suits its applicability in biomechanical applications. The developed FBGSAD can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1098096Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2451
 Alburquerque-Sendín F, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Santos-del-Rey M, Martín-Vallejo F.J, “Immediate effects of bilateral manipulation of talocrural joints on standing stability in healthy subjects.” Man Ther, 2009, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 75–80
 Hahn T., Foldspang A, Vestergaard E, Ingermann-Hansen T. “Onelegged standing balance and sports activity.” Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1999 , vol. 9, pp. 15–18.
 Laskowski E.R, Newcomer-Aney K, Smith J. “Refining rehabilitation with proprioceptive training: expediting return to play.” Phys Sports med. 1997, vol. 25, pp. 89–102.
 Horak F.B, “Clinical measurement of postural control in adults.” Phys Ther.1987, vol. 67, pp.1881–1885.
 Woollacott M, Shumway-cook A, “Attention and the control of posture and gait: a review of an emerging area of research.” Gait Posture, 2002, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
 Sartini, M, CristinaM. L,.Spagnolo A.M, P. Cremonesi C, Costaguta F, Monacelli J, Garau and OdettiP "The epidemiology of domestic injurious falls in a community dwelling elderly population: an outgrowing economic burden." The European Journal of Public Health, vol. 20, no.5, 2010, pp. 604-606.
 Sunderland, Ann. "Balance and gait stability following sports-related concussion." Australian Medical Student Journal vol. 2, no. 2, 2011, pp. 39-41.
 Bonnet, Cédrick, Claudia Carello, and M. T. Turvey. "Diabetes and postural stability: review and hypotheses." Journal of motor behavior, vol. 41, no. 2, 2009, pp. 172-192.
 Abu-Faraj Z. O, Hamdan T. F, Wehbi M. R, Khalil G. A, Hamdan H. M, “Design and Development of an Earthquake-Simulated Environment for the Study of Postural Stability.” In Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, ICBPE 2006, pp. 188-193.
 Brown LA and Frank JS. “Postural compensations to the potential consequences of instability: kinematics.” Gait and Posture, 1997, vol. 6, pp. 89-97.
 Önell A. “The vertical ground reaction force for analysis of balance.” Gait and Posture, 2000, vol. 12, pp. 7-13.
 Sims K J and Brauer S G. “A rapid upward step challenges medio-lateral postural stability.” Gait and Posture, 2000, vol. 12, pp. 217-224.
 Kristinsdottir EK, Fransson PA, and Magnusson M. “Changes in Postural Control in Healthy Elderly Subjects are Related to Vibration Sensation, Vision, and Vestibular Asymmetry.” Acta Otolaryngology, 2001, vol. 121, pp. 700-706.
 Polónyová A and Hlavačka F. “Human postural responses to different frequency vibrations of lower leg muscles.” Physiol. Res., 2001, vol. 50, pp. 405-410.
 Kelly J W, Loomis J M, and Beall A C. “The importance of perceived relative motion in the control of posture.” Exp. Brain Res., 2005, vol. 161, pp. 285-292.
 Kuo A D. “An optimal control model for analyzing human postural balance.” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1995, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 87-101.
 Kuo A D. “An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance.” Journal of Neural Engineering, 2005, vol. 2, pp. S235-S249.
 Rocchi L, Chiari L, and Cappello A. “Feature selection of stabilometric parameters based on principal component analysis.” Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 2004, vol. 42, pp. 71-79.
 Lauk M, Chow C C, Pavlik A E, and Collins J J. “Human balance out of equilibrium: non equilibrium statistical mechanics in posture control.” Physical Review Letters, 1998, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 413-416.
 Masani K, Vette A H, and Popovic M R. “Controlling balance during quiet standing: proportional and derivative controller generates preceding motor command to body sway position observed in experiments.” Gait and Posture, 2006, vol. 23, pp. 164-172.
 Orell AJ, Eves FF, and Masters RSW. “Implicit motor learning of a balancing task.” Gait and Posture, 2006, vol. 23, pp. 9-16.
 Redfern M S, Talkowski M E, Jennings J R, and Furman J M. “Cognitive influences in postural control of patients with unilateral vestibular loss.” Gait and Posture, 2004, vol. 19, pp. 105-114.
 Syczewaska M, Dembowska-Baginska B, Perek-Polnik M, and Perek D. “Functional status of children after treatment for a malignant tumour of the CNS: a preliminary report.” Gait and Posture, 2006, vol. 23, pp. 206- 210.
 Teasdale N and Simoneau M. Attentional demands for postural control: the effects of aging and sensory reintegration.” Gait and Posture, 2001, vol. 14, pp. 203-210.
 Morris M, Iansek R, Smithson F, and Huxham F. “Postural instability in Parkinson's disease: a comparison with and without a concurrent task.” Gait and Posture, 2000, vol. 12, pp. 205-216.
 Geurts A C H, de Haart M, van Nes I J W, and Duysens J. “A review of standing balance recovery from stroke.” Gait and Posture, 2005, vol. 22, pp. 267-281.
 Riemann BL. “Is there a link between chronic ankle instability and postural instability?” Journal of Athletic Training, 2002, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 386-393.
 28. Turcot, K., Allet, L., Golay, A., Hoffmeyer, P. & Armand, S. “Investigation of standing balance in diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy using accelerometers.” Clinical Biomechanics, 2009. vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 716–721.
 Shun Sasagawa. “Effect of the hip motion on the body kinematics in the sagittal plane during human quiet standing,” Neuroscience Letters, 2009, vol. 450 pp. 27-31.
 Hasan, Samer S, Deborah W. Robin, Dennis C. Szurkus, Daniel H. Ashmead, Steven W. Peterson, and Richard G. Shiavi."Simultaneous measurement of body center of pressure and center of gravity during upright stance. Part II: Amplitude and frequency data." Gait &posture , 1996, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 11-20.
 Winter, David A. "Human balance and posture control during standing and walking." Gait & Posture. 1995, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 193-214.
 Clark, Victoria M., and Adrian M. Burden. "A 4-week wobble board exercise programme improved muscle onset latency and perceived stability in individuals with a functionally unstable ankle." Physical therapy in sport., 2005, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 181-187.
 McGuine, T. & Keene, J. “The Effect of a Balance Training Program on the Risk of Ankle Sprains in High School Athlete.” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2006, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1103-1111.
 Omkar S.N, Ganesh D. K., Kiran P. Kulkarni, “Standing Balance: Quantification And The Impact Of Visual Sensory Input.” Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy, 2009, vol. 3, no. 3, pp.44-48.
 Omkar S.N, Jayachandra D, Akshay S, “Stability Training and Quantification – A Essential Tool to Mitigate Space Motion Sickness,” IISc Centenary International Conference and Exhibition on Aerospace Engineering, 2009, pp. 18-22
 Guru Prasad A. S, Omkar S. N, Vikranth H. N, Anil V, Chethana K, and Asokan S. "Design and development of Fiber Bragg Grating sensing plate for plantar strain measurement and postural stability analysis." Measurement, 2014, vol. 47, pp. 789-793.
 Liang Wang, Weiming Hu and Tieniu Tan. “Recent developments in human motion analysis. Pattern Recognition,” 2003, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 585-601.
 Veltink P H, Bussmann H B J, Vries de W, Martens W L J and Lummel van R C. “Detection of static and dynamic activities using uniaxial accelerometers.” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 1996, vol. 4, pp. 375–385.
 Mayagoitia R E, Nene A V, Veltink P H. “Accelerometer and rate gyroscope measurement of kinematics: an inexpensive alternative to optical motion analysis systems.” J Biomech., 2002, vol. 35, pp. 537– 542.
 JosipMusić, Roman Kamnik and Marko Munih. “Model based inertial sensing of human body motion kinematics in sit-to-stand movement. Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory,” 2008, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 933-944.
 Kleissen R F M, Hermens H J, Exter T, Kreek J A and Zilvold G. “Simultaneous measurement of surface EMG and movements for clinical use.” Med BiolEng., 1989, vol. 27, pp. 291-297.
 Kamnik R., J. Music´ H. Burger, M. Munih, T. Bajd, “Design of inertial motion sensor and its usage in biomechanical analysis, in: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Electrical and Power Engineering, Isai, Romania, 2006, pp. 511–516.
 Mayagoitia R.E, Nene A.V, Veltink P, “Accelerometer and rate gyroscope measurement of kinematics: an inexpensive alternative to optical motion analysis system,” Journal of Biomechanics, 2002, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 537–542.
 Yun X., Bachmann E, “Design, implementation and experimental results of quaternion-based Kalman filter for human body motion tracking.” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2006, vol. 22, no. 6. pp.1216–1227.
 Zhu R, Zhou Z, “A real-time articulated human motion tracking using tri-axis inertial/magnetic sensor package,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation, Engineering, 2004, vol.12, no. 2, pp. 295– 302.
 Giansanti D, Maccioni G, Macellari V, “The development and test of a device for the reconstruction of 3-D position and orientation by means of kinematic sensor assembly with rate gyroscope and accelerometers,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2005, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1271–1277.
 Jurman D, Jankovec M, Kamnik R and Topic M, “Calibration and data fusion solution for the miniature attitude and heading reference system,” Sensors and Actuators A, 2007, vol. 138 pp. 411–420.
 Lord M, Reynolds D, Hughes J, “Foot pressure measurement: a review of clinical findings,” J Biomed Engg., 1986, vol. 8, pp. 283–294.
 Washburn R.A, Laporte R.E, “Assessment of walking behavior: Effect of speed and monitor position on two objective physical activity monitors.” Res. Quart. Exerc. Sport., 1988, vol. 59, pp.83-85.
 Hill K.O, Fujii Y, Johnson D.C, Kawasaki B.S, “Photo sensitivity in optical Fiber wave guides: Application to reflection filter fabrication. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1978, vol. 32, pp. 647-649.
 Morey W.W, Meltz G, and Glenn W.H, “Fiber Bragg grating sensors.” in: SPIE Fiber Optic & Laser Sensors VII, 1989, pp. 98-107.
 Kashyap R, “Photosensitive optical fibers: Devices and applications,” Optic. FiberTechnol., 1994, vol. 1, pp. 17-34.
 Hill K.O, Malo B, Bilodeau F, Johnson D.C, Albert J, “Bragg gratings fabricated in mono mode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure thorough a phase-mask,” Appl.Phys. Lett. 1993, vol. 62, pp.1035-1037.
 Batista P, Oliveira P and Cardeira B, “Accelerometer Calibration and Dynamic Bias and Gravity Estimation: Analysis, Design, and Experimental Evaluation,” IEEE transactions on control systems technology, 2011 vol. 19 pp. 1128-1137.
 Cavaleiro P.M, Araujo F.M, Ferreira L.A, Santos J.L, Farahi F, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature Using Bragg Gratings Written in Germano silicate and Boron-Co doped Germano silicate Fibers.” IEEE Phot Tech Let., 1999, vol. 11, pp.1635-37.
 Rao, Y. J, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Measurement science and technology, 1997, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 355.